The uncertain nature of the customer demand need to take into consideration by generating the production plan and in particular the production quantities, to meet uncertain customer demand in the best way possible and maximize the profit, by minimizing production costs. Aggregate planning is a process by which a company decides about their ideal levels of capacity, production, inventory, stock-out situations, pricing, subcontracting, etc. Production planning, is the correct placement of production orders concerning place, or region, of production, and time scheduling and sequencing of production orders. The parameters are usually production rate, workforce, overtime, machine capacity level, subcontracting, backlog, and inventory on hand. The amount of overtime production planned is a parameter for aggregate production planning. Production planning for fashion apparel products has to cope with demand uncertainties. Collaborative forecasts created by various enterprises are an important input in aggregate supply chain planning. However, at the time of generating the production plan, the predicted customer demands are largely uncertain.
Supply chains engender great opportunities for the weather forecasting industry to advance. Those who can utilize these kinds of forecasting, are beneficial to some extent and preserved from loss of weather disruptions. On one hand, the impact of weather in many cases increases the cost of the supply chain, on the other hand, it decrements the visibility of the supply chain due to inclement weather. Various weather stations measure weather data such as rainfall, shipping, etc. Weather cognate courses are being evolved for supply chain managers to tackle weather disruption issues well. The other utilization of weather reports from third-party companies can help forecast early solutions and point out the affected areas.
It has been found that 27.97 million vaccines are being administered every day. But only 2.3% of people in low-income countries received at least a first vaccine by September 2021, according to official reports from national health agencies, which is collated by Our World in Data. Concerns exist about whether some countries producing vaccines may impose protectionist controls by export restrictions. So that it would stockpile a COVID 19 vaccine for their own population. In June, the Serum Institute of India – a major manufacturer of global vaccines – reached a licensing agreement with AstraZeneca to make 1 billion doses of vaccine for low-and-middle-income countries, of which half of the doses would go to India. This is an issue of supply chain management to manufacture and send it to the end-user.In the United States, restrictions on vaccine eligibility have been lowered. And wealthier individuals from other countries with unhurried vaccination rates were reportedly traveling to the United States to be vaccinated.
In SCM, a supply chain manager coordinates the logistics of all the aspects of the supply chain which consists of five parts: the plan or strategy, the source of raw materials and services, manufacturing, i.e., productivity and efficiency, delivery and logistics, the return system for defective and unwanted goods etc. The phenomenon that fluctuation in orders increases as one moves up the supply chain from retailers to wholesalers to manufacturers to suppliers is referred to the bullwhip effect. Managers can help achieve coordination in supply chain by aligning goals and incentives across different functions and stages of the supply chain. When supply chain moves from retailers to wholesalers to manufacturers to suppliers, the bullwhip effect occurs. It results in different stages optimizing local objectives instead of total supply chain profits. The bullwhip effect results in costs in the supply chain and decrease in levels of customer service.