ThepopulardefinitionofLeanManufacturingandtheToyotaProduction Systemconventionallyconsistsofthefollowing: Tosolvethequandaryof waste, LeanManufacturinghasTheTPSisoftenusedinterchangeablywiththe termsLeanManufacturingandLean.Evenmoreimportantly, aLean processischaracterizedbyLeanandtheToyota Production System.ThemainreasonofLeanManufacturingorTPSiseverystepofmanufacturing shouldbeimproved. Leanmanufacturing involvesneverendingeffortstoeliminateorreduce “Muda“, a Japanesetermusedtoreducewaste, whichdoesnotaddvaluetoSupply Chain while makedesign, manufacturing, distributionandcustomerservice processes intherespectiveSupplyChain. Thingsarevisuallydisplayed: Forcommunicatingwithallsortsofpeopleinthe factory /supplychainunitvisualdisplaysareusedasagreattoolinthelean manufacturingprocess.SometechniquesusedinLeanManufacturingtoeliminateerrorsofthe equipmentoperator.
Keywords: TPS,Muda,Lean, 5s,Six Sigma etc.
Lean manufacturing is a synchronized method with which a supply chain can eradicate waste from its production process. According to customer needs, production process is required to develop, so that produced goods become more valuable product in quality. In contemporary manufacturing many supply chains are taking help of lean manufacturing method, so that production become less defective, machinery and raw materials are used in a proper way, eliminating waste as much as possible. It is an approach of identifying and eliminating waste through continued improvement. It emphasizes process waste also, so that they achieve success in the shortest possible cycle time. And makes the operation efficient enough consisting only value added steps.
Lean Manufactory House
Lean manufacturing and TPS
Lean The popular definition of Lean Manufacturing and the Toyota Production System conventionally consists of the following: To solve the quandary of waste, Lean Manufacturing has The TPS is often used interchangeably with the terms Lean Manufacturing and Lean Even more importantly, a Lean process, be it the TPS or another, is characterized by Lean and the Toyota Production System To further explore the depth of what a Lean Manufacturing system authentically is, we will not because the TPS is the best Lean system around. The main reason of Lean Manufacturing or TPS is every step of manufacturing should be improved. It is required to be highly responsible to the consumer requirements, using possible less time and highest quality.
Lean manufacturing involves never ending efforts to eliminate or reduce “muda”( Japanese term used to reduce waste, which does not add value to Supply Chain) while make design, manufacturing, distribution and customer service processes in the respective Supply Chain.
Lean Six Sigma:
A management approach used for solving problems and improving processes, combining Six Sigma and Lean Manufacturing tools.
Kaizen is a Japanese term, which mention about gradually approaching higher standards in enhancing quality and reducing waste, while involving all levels of staff in a company or a Supply Chain. Lean manufacturing tools usually used in an apparel supply chain are as follows:
Sorting things in a Supply Chain workplace and facilities. Cleanliness arrangements and keeping things well arranged are emphasized.
Things are visually displayed:
For communicating with all sorts of people in the factory /supply chain unit visual displays are used as a great tool in the lean manufacturing process. Necessary information, production board at the end of production line, mocks of sewing operation, quality procedure, exit signs are openly displayed; so that errors are minimized in manufacturing and even in the whole supply chain.
Standardization of the work process:
Factory and supply chain as a whole has to set standardized working method, so that manufacturing related wastes and non-value added tasks can be eliminated. While one follows standardized methods errors are minimized.
One of the Lean tools is using “quick changeover” methods, so that change in the manufacturing line can be done more quickly, saving time. In a garment industry manufacturing facility, when a new style is started production, there is considerable set up time losses. Lean methods could be used to reduce set up time loss.
Error Proofing Techniques:
Some techniques used in Lean Manufacturing to eliminate errors of the equipment operator. The purpose of the techniques are preventing, correcting or drawing attention to humanly errors as they occur. This can even include information generation, reporting etc.
Kanban is used as a workplace system tool, which improves visibility and helps to eliminate building excess work in process (WIP) in production lines and facilities.
Problem Solving Tools:
Ishikawa’s Fish Bone Program and Five Why’s are widely used in problem solving. Such manufacturing areas, which are widely changing over time, such as making clothing products, garments manufacturers, need to work with latest products, new machine and materials. To meet our business goal, we need to use them as a team.
Workload balancing tools:
In a sewing line meant for mass production, department to department, process to process work load balance is necessary. Lean manufacturing gives emphasis on workload balance, which is very positive for a manufacturing facility in apparel supply chain.
The accepted architect of the TPS is Taiichi Ohno, the Chief Engineer of Toyota for many years. Others contributed greatly, including Shigeo Shingo and the members of the Toyota family, but Ohno gets most of the credit for its engenderment, development, and implementation. Ohno may get most of the credit because he indicated the most about it, or maybe just did the most about it. Neither is consequential. What is paramount is that the TPS categorically, and Lean Manufacturing in general, is a tremendous contribution to society and manufacturing in particular and we owe an immensely colossal debt of gratitude to those individuals who engendered it and caused it to mature even further.  Lean production system was first introduced in Toyota, Japan. This is not only a set of production methods, but a philosophy also. A good number of Apparel factories are introducing Lean Manufacturing techniques to enhance productivity and business.
1.Lonnie,Wilson.(2018). “ How To Implement Lean Manufacturing”. New York: Mc Graw Hill
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Existing amenities not enough to store, deliver large volume of vaccines within a short time, say experts The governments are considering banking on the existing cold chain for storing, transporting and distributing coronavirus vaccines while some professionals say the main challenge will be to manage such a large volume with the existing capacity. On November 5,2020 the Bangladesh government signed a trilateral memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Serum Institute of India and Bangladesh’s Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd to get three crore doses of Covid-19 vaccines from Serum, keeping in mind the existing cold chain. In 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccines being developed may need ultra-cold storage and transportation temperatures as cold as −70 °C (−94 °F), requiring what has been referred to as a “colder chain” infrastructure. Disruption of a cold chain due to war may produce consequences similar to the smallpox outbreaks in the Philippines during the Spanish–American War, during which the distributed vaccines were inert due to lack of temperature control in transport. There are no uniform global practices to follow, customs, legal, and compliance issues, effects on the environment, supplier-related risks, issues with cold chain delivery — packaging, hardware issues, vehicle breakdown, etc. Besides the usual elements of risk that plague normal supply chains, cold chain logistics has its own exclusive set of problems such as product sensitivity, the increasing cost of freight, and growing regulatory hurdles.
Keywords: Cold Chain, Supply chain management, Vaccines, food.
In drop-sip model, product is shipped directly from manufacturer end bypassing a retailer. Benefits of aggregation can be achieved, if the manufacturer can keep some of its inventory at the retailer end on and as needed basis. In addition, drop-shipping offers manufacturer an opportunity to postpone customization until the customer has placed order finally. Response times tend to be long, because the order has to be transmitted from retailer to the manufacturer and shipping distance are generally longer from the manufacturer’s centralizing site. Order visibility is very important in the context of manufacturer storage, because two stages in the supply chain are involved in every customer order. But a manufacturer storage network is likely to have difficulty handling returns, so that customer satisfaction may be hurt. Because, each order may involve more than one manufacturer.
Carrying out thorough third party audit not only provides the necessary regulations, but it also helps mitigate against reputational financial risk and data related damage. It is required to be careful about various governmental embargo situation: Third party suppliers, logistic service providers should prevent themselves from buying from or selling to anyone on the relevant restricted company lists maintained by various governments, such as Australia, Canada, the UK and the US. On the other hand, this is a strategy which results in higher supply chain profit than a price of the whole duration of sales season. To increase the profit margin Supply Chain Managers must use all the levers available, including price. Third type of approach he can adopt is at high demand season, he can take lower price, and low demand season, he can take a higher price.
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